In this essay we'll take a brief look at the fascinating musical period between andwhere two important periods overlap and morph: Cultural influences on the Baroque and Classical periods Reason and linear logic. A combination of many factors contributed to a new awakening, a new re-birth, a Re-naissance, which gained power in Italy around Galileo and Kepler stand out as proponents of the idea that man could understand the world around him by observing phenomena, followed by constructing models describing those phenomena while using mathematics as a descriptive language.
Back to Top What is the philosophy of Baroque music? Although a single philosophy cannot describe years of music from all over Europe, several concepts are important in the Baroque period.
A belief in music as a potent tool of communication One of the major philosophical currents in Baroque music comes from the Renaissance interest in ideas from ancient Greece and Rome. The Greeks and Romans believed that music was a powerful tool of communication and could arouse any emotion in its listeners.
As French humanist scholar Artus Thomas described a performance in the late sixteenth century, I have ofttimes heard it said of Sieur Claudin Le Jeune who has, without wishing to slight anyone, far surpassed the musicians of ages past in his understanding of these matters that he had sung an air which he had composed in parts …and that when this air was rehearsed at a private concert it caused a gentleman there to put hand to arms and begin swearing out loud, so that it seemed impossible to prevent him from attacking someone: This has been confirmed to me since by several who were there.
Such is the power and force of melody, rhythm and harmony over the mind. In the baroque, it is the spirit of the second practice—using the power of music to communicate—that came to dominate the era. In modern times, artists frequently earn a living producing exactly the kind of art they are moved to create.
Accordingly, we often think of the artist—and the degree of his or her artistic inspiration—as the starting point for a work of art. Throughout much of the Baroque era, however, composers only earned a living writing music if they were fortunate enough to be on the payroll of a political or religious institution.
The musical needs of that institution, therefore, dictated the music the composer produced. Bach wrote the number of cantatas he did, for example, not necessarily because he found the form inspirational, but because of the liturgical demands of the Leipzig church that employed him.
When viewed in this light, Baroque music can provide a fascinating window into history. Back to Top What are the characteristics of Baroque music? Contrast as a dramatic element Contrast is an important ingredient in the drama of a Baroque composition.
The differences between loud and soft, solo and ensemble as in the concertodifferent instruments and timbres all play an important role in many Baroque compositions. Composers also began to be more precise about instrumentation, often specifying the instruments on which a piece should be played instead of allowing the performer to choose.
Brilliant instruments like the trumpet and violin also grew in popularity. Monody and the advent of the basso continuo In previous musical eras, a piece of music tended to consist of a single melody, perhaps with an improvised accompaniment, or several melodies played simultaneously.
As part of the effort to imitate ancient music, composers started focusing less on the complicated polyphony that dominated the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and more on a single voice with a simplified accompaniment, or monody. If music was a form of rhetoric, as the writings of the Greeks and Romans indicate, a powerful orator is necessary—and who better for the job than a vocal soloist?
The best philosophers agree, and the very nature of our voice, with its high, low and middle ranges, would indicate as much. Along with the emphasis on a single melody and bass line came the practice of basso continuo, a method of musical notation in which the melody and bass line are written out and the harmonic filler indicated in a type of shorthand.
As the Italian musician Agostino Agazzari explained in Since the true style of expressing the words has at last been found, namely, by reproducing their sense in the best manner possible, which succeeds best with a single voice or no more than a fewas in the modern airs by various able men, and as is the constant practice at Rome in concerted music, I say that it is not necessary to make a score… A Bass, with its signs for the harmonies, is enough.
But if some one were to tell me that, for playing the old works, full of fugue and counterpoints, a Bass is not enough, my answer is that vocal works of this kind are no longer in use.
As part of this new interest, scholars and musicians have spent countless hours trying to figure out how the music might have sounded to 17th and 18th century audiences. While we will never be able to recreate a performance precisely, their work has unearthed several major differences between Baroque and modern ensembles: Beforehowever, there was no pitch standard.
The note to which Baroque ensembles tuned, therefore, varied widely at different times and in different places. As a result, the music notated on a score might have sounded as much as a half tone lower than how it would traditionally be performed today. In an effort to allow for this discrepancy, many baroque ensembles adjust their tuning to the repertoire being performed: While most of the instruments in a baroque ensemble are familiar, there are several prominent members no longer featured in modern ensembles.
The harpsichord was the primary keyboard instrument and an important member of the continuo groupand instruments important in the 16th and 17th centuries like the lute and violstill continued to be used. Variations in instruments still popular today also gave the baroque ensemble a different sound.
String instruments like the violin, viola and cello used gut strings rather than the strings wrapped in metal with which they are strung today, for example, giving them a mellower, sweeter tone.
A baroque score contains little if any information about elements like articulation, ornamentation or dynamics, and so modern ensembles need to make their own informed choices before each performance. Mechanical differences between baroque and modern instruments also suggest that the older instruments would have sounded differently, so ensembles like Music of the Baroque often adjust their technique to allow for this.
Because baroque and modern bows are structurally different, for example, string players using modern bows often use a gentler attack on the string and crescendos and diminuendos on longer notes.This is also evident in the comparison between the Baroque period painting, Madonna and Child with Saints by Sebastian Rich and the Madonna del Grandeur by Raphael.
Again, same subject but dramatically different presentations with color and emotion.
Differences between Baroque and Classical music One of the outstanding differences between these key periods of Western Classical Music is the change in creative thinking. Baroque music as we can clearly hear in the music of a composer such as J.
S Bach is textural complexity and the dominance of polyphonic writing. A comparison between three Vivaldi movements From L'estro Armonica ashio-midori.com Antonio Vivaldi was one of the most prominent composers of the Baroque period.
He lived in Venice, Italy for the duration of his life () and taught music at an all-girls orphanage for most of it. T he Transition between Baroque and Classical Franklin C. van Splunteren Catalani, could be partially explained by the fact that religion played a more central role in Baroque daily life than during the Classical period hence a shift in center of the collective consciousness.
Period. three successive works in a composer's life. What is Baroque Music? What is “baroque,” and when was the Baroque period? who wrote approximately and established the concerto’s standard three-movement form (two fast outer movements, one middle movement in a slower tempo).
While most solo concertos were written for violin, trumpet concertos were also popular, and concertos . Comparing and Contrasting The Baroque and Classical Period in Music; A Pages: 3 Words: Comparing and Contrasting The Baroque and Classical Period in Music specifically for you.
(three movement pieces for orchestra and a solo instrument), Symphonies (four movement orchestral pieces), and Sonatas (three movement pieces .