Given acids or bases at the same concentration, demonstrate understanding of acid and base strength by: Relating the strength of an acid or base to the extent to which it dissociates in water 2.
Many people today are interested in exercise as a way of improving their health and physical abilities. But there is also concern that too much exercise, or exercise that is not appropriate for certain individuals, may actually do more harm than good.
Exercise has many short-term acute and long-term effects that the body must be capable of handling for the exercise to be beneficial. Some of the major acute effects of exercising are shown in Figure 1.
When we exercise, our heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac output the amount of blood pumped per heart beat all increase.
Blood flow to the heart, the muscles, and the skin increase. We breathe faster and deeper to supply the oxygen required by this increased metabolism. Eventually, with strenuous exercise, our body's metabolism exceeds the oxygen supply and begins to use alternate biochemical processes that do not require oxygen.
These processes generate lactic acid, which enters the blood stream.
As we develop a long-term habit of exercise, our cardiac output and lung capacity increase, even when we are at rest, so that we can exercise longer and harder than before. Over time, the amount of muscle in the body increases, and fat is burned as its energy is needed to help fuel the body's increased metabolism.
Figure 1 This figure highlights some of the major acute short-term effects on the body during exercise. Dialysis in the Kidneys " you learned about the daily maintenance required in the blood for normal everyday activities such as eating, sleeping, and studying. Now, we turn our attention to the chemical and physiological concepts that explain how the body copes with the stress of exercise.
As we shall see, many of the same processes that work to maintain the blood's chemistry under normal conditions are involved in blood-chemistry maintenance during exercise, as well.
During exercise, the muscles use up oxygen as they convert chemical energy in glucose to mechanical energy. This O2 comes from hemoglobin in the blood. These chemical changes, unless offset by other physiological functions, cause the pH of the blood to drop.
If the pH of the body gets too low below 7. This can be very serious, because many of the chemical reactions that occur in the body, especially those involving proteins, are pH-dependent. Ideally, the pH of the blood should be maintained at 7. If the pH drops below 6. Fortunately, we have buffers in the blood to protect against large changes in pH.
This external fluid, in turn, exchanges chemicals with the blood being pumped throughout the body. A dominant mode of exchange between these fluids cellular fluid, external fluid, and blood is diffusion through membrane channels, due to a concentration gradient associated with the contents of the fluids.
Recall your experience with concentration gradients in the "Membranes, Proteins, and Dialysis" experiment. Hence, the chemical composition of the blood and therefore of the external fluid is extremely important for the cell.
As mentioned above, maintaining the proper pH is critical for the chemical reactions that occur in the body. In order to maintain the proper chemical composition inside the cells, the chemical composition of the fluids outside the cells must be kept relatively constant.
This constancy is known in biology as homeostasis. Figure 2 This is a schematic diagram showing the flow of species across membranes between the cells, the extracellular fluid, and the blood in the capillaries.
The body has a wide array of mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the blood and extracellular fluid. The most important way that the pH of the blood is kept relatively constant is by buffers dissolved in the blood.
Other organs help enhance the homeostatic function of the buffers. The kidneys help remove excess chemicals from the blood, as discussed in the Kidney Dialysis tutorial. Acidosis that results from failure of the kidneys to perform this excretory function is known as metabolic acidosis. However, excretion by the kidneys is a relatively slow process, and may take too long to prevent acute acidosis resulting from a sudden decrease in pH e.
The lungs provide a faster way to help control the pH of the blood. The increased-breathing response to exercise helps to counteract the pH-lowering effects of exercise by removing CO2, a component of the principal pH buffer in the blood.
Acidosis that results from failure of the lungs to eliminate CO2 as fast as it is produced is known as respiratory acidosis. A Quantitative View The kidneys and the lungs work together to help maintain a blood pH of 7.part i.
introduction The molarity of an unknown acid will be determined using a method called "titration". Titration is the process of the gradual addition of a solution of known concentration to a second solution. Science Enhanced Scope and Sequence – Chemistry Virginia Department of Education © 3 9.
Record the level of the NaOH in the burette tube at the end point as. Acid Base Titrations Introduction Multiple titrations, of which involve acid-base reactions, are to be performed in this experiment.
In the first portion, the titration is for the standardization of NaOH and the second portion titration is for the standardization of HCl%(19).
Catalytic Bioscavengers Against Toxic Esters, an Alternative Approach for Prophylaxis and Treatments of Poisonings. These videos are offered on a “pay what you like” basis. You can pay for the use of the videos with a monthly pledge of $1 on my Patreon page. Or you can make a one-time payment via Paypal. Acid-base solutions simulation, developed by PhET, University of Colorado Boulder. Select 'Introduction' to try standard solutions. Select 'Custom' to create your own.
These videos are offered on a “pay what you like” basis. You can pay for the use of the videos with a monthly pledge of $1 on my Patreon page. Or you can make a one-time payment via Paypal. APPEARANCE: Colorless or pale blue liquid below 78°F (°C), colorless gas above 78°F (°C).; DESCRIPTION: Hydrogen cyanide (AC) is a systemic chemical ashio-midori.com interferes with the normal use of oxygen by nearly every organ of the body.
Exposure to hydrogen cyanide . This page is My section to unofficially support the Chemistry, Radioactivity and Earth Science in ANY AQA, Edexcel & OCR GCSE-IGCSE Chemistry, KS4 science or IGCSE syllabus from the following examination board syllabuses-specifications gcse private tuition residential student tuition courses pupil resources teacher resources publishing company revision guides published by Amazon Harper Collins.