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These resources come down to us through traditions of teaching and practice, in handbooks, theoretical tracts, exemplary models, and heritable pedagogies. Such materials have sometimes succumbed but often resisted the temptation to standardize and systematize, since the art of rhetoric in its very nature speaks to each particular audience and occasion, a requirement that hinders efforts to give it rule-bound methods.
The reasons for this resistance to standardization need to be explored as well as how invention has continued to provide heuristic guidance without prescriptive methodological tools. Lacking method, rhetoric is aided by the cultural support of convention, which in turn is modified for each new situation.
Such a dialectic of convention and invention animates the ongoing registration of rhetoric to communicative practices and explains its durability as an unsystematic art.
The Latin invenio still carries the equivocity of the Greek heuresis in meaning both invention and discovery, and it is in the exchange between these two meanings that rhetoric has found its animating disciplinary energy. The term invention will be used throughout this entry, but it should be understood to carry this double meaning, which is essential to its conceptual and pedagogical heft.
Rhetoric is nothing if not a teaching tradition, and the pedagogy of invention evolved in the first place to aid in that amorphous and difficult process every writer or speaker or artist faces, beginning and experienced, of composing in front of a blank page, or responding in the moment before an expectant audience, or crafting an image with unformed materials.
Because students can use guidance in this process, instruction is a kind of maieutic. Its products are equally various: As this exposition unfolds we will see that the nucleus of the idea of invention has an efficacity that has no trouble accommodating this expansive potential.
Many thinkers in far-flung fields have brought useful insights to bear on invention without recognizing their kinship, and this cross-disciplinarity is part of the reason Richard McKeon, with perhaps an overzealous ambition, proposed rhetoric as the architectonic discipline The reason the field of rhetoric still holds some space in the academy despite its vast cross-disciplinary assimilation is the demand for instructing students in the challenging art of expression.
Although rhetoric provides a mobile army of ready resources for public discourse, it is somewhat anachronistic in an age in which method and technique predominate. Its resources are resolutely not established formulas, settled systems, or predetermined rules.
The instability, ambiguity, and controversy around the tools of the rhetorical trade stem from the tension between the desire to provide rules for the art and its insistence on not becoming a subsumptive exercise; rather than applying determinate rules to universal circumstances it constructs each appeal out of the particular situation, without losing sight of its own developing orientation to an emergent truth: Now, this does not mean that rhetorical resources are formless and ungovernable.
Rhetorical invention is grounded in practice even as it is insistent on adaptation. This very same reciprocity, born out of its role in practical judgment and action, has also meant that it has been from the beginning a nagging opponent of philosophical absolutism and relativism, and a strong ally in the battles against the perennial inclination to build systems.
At the root of the paradigmatic power of rhetorical invention lies its original equivocation—that heuresis relies on the contest or collaboration of convention and invention in what we now might call a dialectic.
What develops in the inventional toolkit over time is an odd miscellany—topos, genre, kairos, stasis, enthymeme, figure, etc.
This looseness of category and definition is further exacerbated by the promiscuity of the rhetorical terrain, spreading out as it has across so many disciplinary habitats.
But what unites these performative resources is their conscious attention to mediating general principles with situational constraints.
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And by recognizing this work to take place against the reductive temptations of rule and system, rhetorical invention has served as a perennial resistance to the tyranny of method. The following summary of canonic pedagogical resources, the first half of this article, will demonstrate this defining value of invention.
Each of these rhetorical resources will show in its own way the complex negotiation rhetoric has attempted as an unsystematic techne. Genres are common formal patterns of speech and composition that surface at the level of situation.Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and abuse: a new approach Report of the Secretary-General periods will be absorbed within existing approved resources and consequently will to work with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and external experts to explore ways to ensur e greater.
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Rhetorical invention is both a practice and its teaching—the capacity to create effective communication, and the instruction in this capacity. Somehow human beings are able to make the leap from familiar patterns to applications in new situations that are unique in their particularity.
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