Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. In this region became a province of the Muslim empire then ruled from Damascus by the Umayyad caliphs —
Protofeudalism and Military campaigns under Caliph Uthman The historian al-Tabari transmits a tradition attributed to the Caliph Uthman who stated that the road to Constantinople was through Hispania, "Only through Spain can Constantinople be conquered. If you conquer Spain you will share the reward of those who conquer Constantinople.
He considers that it was not a shift in direction due to the Muslims failing to conquer Constantinople in There is one contemporary Christian source, the Chronicle of which ends on that dateregarded as reliable but often vague.
Later regnal lists, which cite Achila and omit Roderic, are consistent with the contemporary account of civil war. They defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete in However, this putative invasion is not accepted by modern historians.
The first expedition led by Tariq was made up mainly of Berbers who had themselves only recently come under Muslim influence. It is probable that this army represented a continuation of a historic pattern of large-scale raids into Iberia dating to the pre—Islamic period, and hence it has been suggested that actual conquest was not originally planned.
It has been argued that this possibility is supported by the fact that the army was led by a Berber and that Musa, who was the Umayyad Governor of North Africa, only arrived the following year — the governor had not stooped to lead a mere raid, but hurried across once the unexpected triumph became clear.
The Chronicle of stated that "the entire army of the Goths, which had come with him [Roderic] fraudulently and in rivalry out of hopes of the Kingship, fled". This is the only contemporary account of the battle and the paucity of detail led many later historians to invent their own.
The location of the battle is not totally clear but was probably the Guadalete River. It may have been equally welcome to the Hispano-Roman peasants who were probably— as D. Lomax claims — disillusioned by the prominent legal, linguistic and social divide between them and the "barbaric" and "decadent" Visigoth royal family.
During the period of the second or first, depending on the sources Arab governor Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa —the principal urban centres of Catalonia surrendered.
The northern areas of Iberia drew little attention to the conquerors and were hard to defend when taken. The high western and central sub-Pyrenean valleys remained unconquered. At this time, Umayyad troops reached Pamplonaand the Basque town submitted after a compromise was brokered with Arab commanders to respect the town and its inhabitants, a practice that was common in many towns of the Iberian Peninsula.
Theudimer then signed a conditional capitulation by which his lands were made into an autonomous client state under Umayyad rule "the rule of God". His government and the Christian beliefs of his subjects were respected; in exchange, he pledged to pay a tax and to hand over any rebels plotting against Umayyad rule or the Islamic religion.
In exception to this pattern, some towns Cordova, Toledo, etc. Islamic laws did not apply to all the subjects of the new rulers.
Christians were ruled by their own Visigothic law code Forum Iudicum as before. In most of the towns, ethnic communities remained segregated and newly arriving ethnic groups Syrians, Yemenites, Berbers and others would erect new boroughs outside existing urban areas.
However, this would not apply to towns under direct Umayyad rule.When Muslims invaded Spain and conquered the Iberian Peninsula, they brought with them a culture of education and tolerance as well as architectural and culinary influences.
Most notably, Muslim Spain was the first region of Europe where Christians, Jews and Muslims lived side by side without. With the further conquest of Egypt, Spain and North Africa, Islam included all of the Persian empire and most of the old Roman world under Islamic rule.
Muslims began . The conquest of Spain was the beginning of a new era in world history. It was the first interaction of Islamic civilization with the Latin West.
For centuries, Muslim Spain was a beacon of knowledge to a European continent that was shrouded in the stupor of the Dark Ages. The conquest of Spain was the beginning of a new era in world history.
It was the first interaction of Islamic civilization with the Latin West. For centuries, Muslim Spain was a beacon of knowledge to a European continent that was shrouded in the stupor of the Dark Ages.
But the Islamic influence has preserved in Spain till nowadays, though Isabella made everything to destroy Islam and eradicate any traces of the Muslims.
The Islamic invasion positively affected many areas of life in Spain, such as culture, education, religion, economics, science, society and family.
Analysing the impact of the Islamic invasion on the history of Spain, the essay suggests that the Muslims considerably affected such areas of Spanish life .