Tiny holes in the epidermis skin of a leaf - usually on the undersides of leaves.
It has tiny holes which allow water molecules to pass through. These holes are too small for larger solute particles to pass through. Once inside the root hair cell, the water dilutes the solution in the cytoplasm, so the solution is less concentrated than that of cells closer Potometer coursework the centre of the root.
Water therefore passes from cell to cell by osmosis across the root, until it reaches the xylem vessel at the centre of the root. The xylem vessel carries water up the plant. Plants need minerals to stay healthy.
Minerals are found dissolved in the soil water around the plant roots.
When minerals dissolve, they form ions. These are very small and can pass through holes in the cell membrane. Some mineral ions diffuse from the soil into the root hair cells, because their concentration in soil water is higher than that in cell sap.
Diffusion is a passive process. This means it does not use energy. When the concentration of minerals is higher in soil water than in root hair cells, the minerals can diffuse into the cells passively.
An example of this is when a farmer puts fertilizer onto the soil. Sometimes minerals are in a higher concentration inside the cells than they are in the soil water. This would favor diffusion of minerals out of the plant into the soil.
Instead, the plant pumps minerals into the root hair cells against the concentration gradient by a process called active transport.
Active transport uses energy. This energy is provided by respiration. The site of respiration inside cells is the mitochondria.
Root hair cells contain many mitochondria. If soil becomes waterlogged the plants may die. This is because water takes the place of air in the soil, so the roots cannot obtain oxygen.
Without oxygen, plants cannot respire to release energy for active transport, so they cannot take in minerals. Glucose sugar is produced when a plant photosynthesises.
Some of the sugar is used for respiration to release energy. The sugar is also used to make different types of chemicals needed by the plant. Many sugar molecules are joined together to form starch, which is an insoluble carbohydrate stored in the cells.
Starch can later be broken down into glucose again when the plant is not photosynthesising. The glucose molecules can join together in a slightly different arrangement to form cellulose molecules. These are used to make cell walls. Glucose can be converted to fatty acids and glycerol. These make up fat molecules that are stored in many types of seeds.
Glucose is combined with nitrogen and other elements to make amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. These other elements are obtained from the soil as minerals.
Energy from respiration is needed for all these reactions.I would like to extend the basic leaf disc experiment and perhaps to look at the effect of temperature on the rate of photsynthesis for A2 coursework. Ask the Experts I would like to extend the basic leaf disc experiment and perhaps to look at the effect of temperature on the rate of photsynthesis for A2 coursework.
These biology experiments are designed for you to do at home or school using simple equipment. For some experiments, you may need a calculator.
Here is a link to an excellent one provided by Webcalc. To access experiments, click on one of the experiments listed below.
In most cases, it is simplest to copy the experiment into a word processing program, and then print it out. Measuring Transpiration. Transpiration can be measured by an instrument called a potometer.
The diagram below shows the apparatus set up for a potometer. Vaseline is applied around the rubber bungs to ensure an airtight seal, thus the only water loss from the apparatus is via transpiration.
2+, PO 4 3– in cell metabolism in plants and animals. This should include their role as components of biological molecules, e.g. chlorophyll, haemoglobin, nucleic acids and phospholipids. View Kavita Solanki’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community.
Kavita has 9 jobs listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Kavita’s Title: RNA Operations Associate, . The marking points A to T follow the coursework descriptors for Skill P. Indicate on the plans where the marking points are met by using a tick and an appropriate letter.
There are 14 marking points for aspects of the plan and two marks for quality of written communication (QWC).