Axis initiative and Allied reaction The outbreak of war By the early part of the German dictator Adolf Hitler had become determined to invade and occupy Poland. Poland, for its part, had guarantees of French and British military support should it be attacked by Germany. Hitler intended to invade Poland anyway, but first he had to neutralize the possibility that the Soviet Union would resist the invasion of its western neighbour. In a secret protocol of this pact, the Germans and the Soviets agreed that Poland should be divided between them, with the western third of the country going to Germany and the eastern two-thirds being taken over by the U.
Administered by the League of Nations Annexed or transferred to neighboring countries by the treaty, or later via plebiscite and League of Nation action Weimar Germany The Treaty of Versailles was neither lenient enough to appease Germanynor harsh enough to prevent it from becoming the dominant continental power again.
The treaty provided for harsh monetary reparationsseparated millions of ethnic Germans into neighboring countries, territorial dismembermentand caused mass ethnic resettlement. In an effort to pay war reparations to Britain and France, the Weimar Republic printed trillions of marks, causing extremely high inflation of the German currency see Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.
The treaty created bitter resentment towards the victors of World War I, who had promised the people of Germany that U. Many Germans felt that the German government had agreed to an armistice based on this understanding, while others felt that the German Revolution of — had been orchestrated by the "November criminals" who later assumed office in the new Weimar Republic.
The German colonies were taken during the war, and Italy took the southern half of Tyrol after an armistice had been agreed upon. The war in the east ended with the defeat and collapse of Russian Empireand German troops occupied large parts of Eastern and Central Europe with varying degree of controlestablishing various client states such as a kingdom of Poland and the United Baltic Duchy.
After the destructive and indecisive battle of Jutland and the mutiny of its sailors inthe Kaiserliche Marine spent most of the war in port, only to be turned over to the allies and scuttled at surrender by its own officers. The lack of an obvious military defeat was one of the pillars that held together the Dolchstosslegende "Stab-in-the-back myth" and gave the Nazis another propaganda tool at their disposal.
Ginsberg argues, "France was greatly weakened and, in its weakness and fear of a resurgent Germany, sought to isolate and punish Germany French revenge would come back to haunt France during the Nazi invasion and occupation twenty years later.
The Paris Peace Conference of was their chance to punish Germany for starting the war. The War Guilt Clause was the first step towards a satisfying revenge for the victor countries, namely France, against Germany. France understood that its position in was "artificial and transitory".
The two main provisions of the French security agenda were reparations from Germany in the form of money and coal and a detached German Rhineland. The French government printed excess currency, which created inflation, to compensate for the lack of funds in addition to borrowing money from the United States.
Reparations from Germany were necessary to stabilize the French economy.
Because France feared for its safety as a country, the French demanded an amount of coal that was a "technical impossibility" for the Germans to pay back. This gave France a physical security barrier between itself and Germany.
Germany also fell behind in their coal payments. They fell behind because of a passive resistance movement against the French.
At this point the majority of Germans were enraged with the French and placed the blame for their humiliation on the Weimar Republic. Although this failed, Hitler gained recognition as a national hero amongst the German population. The demilitarized Rhineland and additional cutbacks on military infuriated the Germans.
Although it is logical that France would want the Rhineland to be a neutral zone, the fact that France had the power to make that desire happen merely added onto the resentment of the Germans against the French. In addition, the Treaty of Versailles dissolved the German general staff and possession of navy ships, aircraft, poison gastanks, and heavy artillery was made illegal.
Grew, in a formal address to the America-Japan Society stated: American rights and interests in China are being impaired or destroyed by the policies and actions of the Japanese authorities in China. Lengthy talks were held between the U. The intended consequence of this was the halt of oil shipments from the U.Wilhelm II (), the German kaiser (emperor) and king of Prussia from to , was one of the most recognizable public figures of World War I ().
He gained a reputation as a swaggering militarist through his speeches and ill-advised newspaper interviews. Hitler's Foreign Policy and the Causes of World War II Leaving Cert > Dictatorship and Democracy in Europe > Hitler's Foreign Policy and the Causes of World War II Europe in September Jan 12, · After years of Nazi rule in Germany, during which Jews were consistently persecuted, Hitler’s “final solution”–now known as the Holocaust–came to fruition under the cover of world war.
The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Russia was doing poorly in the war, the Provisional Government refused to pull Russia out of the war, and began announcing new offensives.
Hitler's Aims and Actions as the Cause of World War II When considering the reasons for the outbreak of war in it is easy to place the entire blame on Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy. "The primary cause of the Great Depression," reads the first sentence of President Herbert People in Depression and War (),which recounts the history of the United States in the two great crises of the Great Depression and World War II.
Global History and US Foreign Policy ; Eras and Sub-Eras. The Great Depression and World War II.