Power to Kill Ethics in modern medicine are still grounded in a document that is thousands of years old:
Front and center are the principles of autonomy and beneficence. Going further, a dying patient may explicitly ask for assistance in ending their own suffering by suicide PAD or in the extreme case may request that the doctor give them a lethal injection active euthanasia AE.
There are countless variations of cases like these.
What is a doctor seeking to act morally to do in these complex situations? In this paper, I will emphasize the importance of examining cases individually and argue that passive euthanasia, physician assisted death, and active euthanasia are all morally permissible—if certain conditions are met.
To begin with, I will analyze the case of voluntary PE, which is arguably the least contentious. This is because a defense of voluntary PE can be grounded solely on the requirement of informed consent, whereas this is not possible in the cases of AE, PAD, or non-voluntary PE.
The requirement of informed consent comes directly from the principle of autonomy and holds that physicians cannot perform medical procedures unless a patient knowingly and voluntarily agrees to them.
In other words, ethically considered, life-saving treatment is no different from non-life-saving treatment and cannot be administered to a well-informed patient who refuses it. Thus, voluntary PE can be considered morally equivalent to refusing to have a benign mole removed from fear of surgery—which is generally taken to be morally permissible.
Therefore, when they give or do not give consent to an operation they are understood to be acting in their best interest. Since the principle of autonomy and the principle of beneficence are preserved, voluntary PE, with informed consent, can be morally justified.
This brings us to the more complex case of non-voluntary PE, which I will also defend as morally permissible—but with some restrictions. However, I believe the principle of beneficence goes further. As stated by John D. Of course, critics may often be right—preserving life typically does this. It does not do so in every case, though: This helps morally justify PE and presses the physician to act accordingly.
Most important in the context of non-voluntary PE is the fact that patients who cannot give consent to PE may also have had this desire, but have only lost the ability to communicate it.
I believe it should still be respected in these cases. For example, in the case of Nancy Cruzan, who was left in a persistent vegetative state similar to a coma after a car accident, the parents urged the hospital to disconnect her life support after three years—stating that she would not have wanted to be kept alive in this way.
In other words, the parents were referencing this desire to retain dignity. The parents knew Nancy extremely well, and throughout her life had been able to gain some insight into what she would consider a death with dignity.
However, in this case there is a much greater risk of abuse than in voluntary PE. For this reason, I believe some restrictions are necessary. PAD, however, is only allowed in five states. To argue for its moral permissibility, I will return to the principle of autonomy.
As previously stated, the requirement of informed consent does not suffice in this case.
A patient may consent to a fatal prescription of barbiturates, but if a physician does not prescribe it, nothing follows. In the case of PAD, the related right to self-determination is most relevant.Baker, Melanie, The Morality of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Other Types of Voluntary Euthanasia: Dismantling the Conceptual Framework Supporting the Status Quo, Dissertation Submitted to Purdue University for Doctor of Philosopher, August (UMI Microform ()).
Patient Assisted Suicide Essay - Adherence One of the greatest dangers facing chronic and terminally ill patients is the grey area regarding PAS. In the Netherlands, there are strict criteria for the practice of PAS. Despite such stringencies, the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs () found 28% of the PAS cases in the Netherlands did.
The Morality and Legality of Physician Assisted Suicide.
Currently, physician assisted suicide is only legal in the Netherlands, and in the United States it is has limited practice in Oregon with the state’s Death with Dignity Act (Dieterle , ). the experts on the subject have drawn some conclusions regarding the morality and.
Free Essay: The Morality of Assisted Suicide Deciding when to die and when to live is an issue that has only recently begun to confront patients all over the. Baker, Melanie, The Morality of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Other Types of Voluntary Euthanasia: Dismantling the Conceptual Framework Supporting the Status Quo, Dissertation Submitted to Purdue University for Doctor of Philosopher, August (UMI Microform ()).
Essay on The Morality of Assisted Suicide The Morality of Assisted Suicide Deciding when to die and when to live is an issue that has only recently begun to confront patients all over the world.
There is an elderly man lying in a hospital bed, he just had his fourth heart attack and is in a .